Words

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When I was in high school and even more insufferable than I am now, a friend and I started a tumblr called "sun words". The concept of this was to collect words that we discovered that were particularly succulent or mellifluous. 1

I have found myself learning more and more words recently. This is fun and good: I was worried for a while that my days of adapting and playing with the English language were largely behind me. I thought it would be interesting and illustrative to collect a list of the words I've learned recently alongside the sources from which I've gleaned them.

When I first started building this catalog, I expected the plurality to be from the NYT crossword 2, and the data appears to bear that out:

Footnotes

  1. Why "sun words"? Because we were high schoolers, and because we learned of the concept of "SAT words" — words that made Flesch-Kincaid salivate — and because _Sun_day comes after _Sat_urday. (I told you — insufferable.)

  2. Of which I recommend you make a daily habit!

limn

depict or describe in painting or words.

epicanthic

denoting a fold of skin from the upper eyelid covering the inner angle of the eye.

gainsay

deny or contradict (a fact or statement).

malversation

corrupt behavior in a position of trust, especially in public office.

sidereal

of or with respect to the distant stars (i.e. the constellations or fixed stars, not the sun or planets).

equipoise

balance of forces or interests

tantivy

a rapid gallop or ride.

virion

the complete, infective form of a virus outside a host cell, with a core of RNA or DNA and a capsid.

aedicule

an opening such as a door or a window, framed by columns on either side, and a pediment above

pecuniary

related to money

sousveillance

the recording of an activity by a member of the public, rather than a person or organisation in authority, typically by way of small wearable or portable personal technologies

ultracrepidarianism

the habit or act of giving opinions on matters outside the scope of one's knowledge.

lebensraum

the territory that a state or nation believes is needed for its natural development

moksha

release from the cycle of rebirth impelled by the law of karma

quondam

that once was; former

lanai

a porch or veranda.

analphabetism

illiteracy; the inability to read and write

conurbation

an extended urban area, typically consisting of several towns merging with the suburbs of one or more cities.

metanoia

change in one's way of life resulting from penitence or spiritual conversion

pandiculation

the involuntary stretching of the soft tissues, which occurs in most animal species and is associated with transitions between cyclic biological behaviors, especially the sleep-wake rhythm

rorqual

a streamlined whale

quiddity

the inherent nature or essence of someone or something.

katabasis

a mytheme or trope in which the hero embarks on a journey to the underworld

axilla

the space below the shoulder through which vessels and nerves enter and leave the upper arm; a person's armpit.

aborning

while being born or produced

hormesis

a dose-response phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition

bezoar

a small stony concretion that may form in the stomachs of certain animals, especially ruminants, and which was once used as an antidote for various ailments.

haruspicy

the art or practice of divination

geodesy

the branch of mathematics dealing with the shape and area of the earth or large portions of it.

buccal

Related to the cheek

poteen

alcohol made illicitly, typically from potatoes.

pentiment

an underlying image in a painting, especially one that has become visible when the top layer of paint has turned transparent with

volvelle

a rotating paper 'wheel chart', often found in early astronomy or mathematical books

diopter

a unit of refractive power that is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length (in meters) of a given lens.

echolalia

meaningless repetition of another person's spoken words as a symptom of psychiatric disorder.

amanuensis

a literary or artistic assistant, in particular one who takes dictation or copies manuscripts.

ochlocracy

government by mob rule

ferial

denoting an ordinary weekday, as opposed to one appointed for a festival or fast.

baksheesh

a small sum of money given as a tip, bribe, or charitable donation

finial

a distinctive ornament at the apex of a roof, pinnacle, canopy, or similar structure in a building.

sockdolager

a forceful blow

zhuzh

make more exciting, lively, or attractive.

nychthemeron

a full period of night and day

overmorrow

the day after tomorrow

allopathy

the treatment of disease by conventional means, i.e., with drugs having opposite effects to the symptoms.

hieratic

of or concerning priests

paracosm

a detailed imaginary world, especially one created by a child

morganatic

relating to or denoting a marriage in which neither the spouse of lower rank, nor any children, have any claim to the possessions or title of the spouse of higher rank.

tulpa

an object or being that is created through spiritual or mental powers

iatrogenic

relating to illness caused by medical examination or treatment.

asthenosphere

the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.

plat

a plot of land

armillary

resembling an armlet or bracelet: consisting of rings or circles

cabotage

the right to operate sea, air, or other transport services within a particular territory.

clerestory

the upper part of the nave, choir, and transepts of a large church, containing a series of windows. It is clear of the roofs of the aisles and admits light to the central parts of the building.

acedia

spiritual or mental sloth; apathy.

anxiolytic

(chiefly of a drug) used to reduce anxiety.

rhadamantine

rigorously strict or just

eucatastrophe

a sudden and favorable resolution of events in a story; a happy ending.

argot

the jargon or slang of a particular group or class.

geas

an obligation or prohibition magically imposed on a person

tonsure

a part of a monk's or priest's head left bare on top by shaving off the hair

gruit

a herb mixture used for bittering and flavouring bee

bouquiniste

a dealer in secondhand books

anaglypta

a type of wallpaper that has a permanent raised design

footling

trivial and irritating

quango

a semipublic administrative body outside the civil service but receiving financial support from the government, which makes senior appointments to it

mandinarate

a ruling class of scholars and elites

spatulate

having a broad, rounded end.

guerdon

a reward or recompense.

aquarist

a person who keeps an aquarium

moll

a gangster's female companion

sedevacantism

a doctrinal position within traditionalist Catholicism which holds that the present occupier of the Holy See is not a valid pope due to the pope's espousal of one or more heresies

vranyo

white lies or half-lies in Russian culture, told without the intention of (maliciously) deceiving, but as a fantasy, suppressing unpleasant parts of the truth

integument

a tough outer protective layer, especially that of an animal or plant.

matutinal

of or occurring in the morning.

shufti

a look or reconnoiter, especially a quick one.

mahout

a person who works with, rides, and tends an elephant

hob

a flat metal shelf at the side or back of a fireplace, having its surface level with the top of the grate and used especially for heating pans.

pied

having two or more different colors.

mandamus

a judicial writ issued as a command to an inferior court or ordering a person to perform a public or statutory duty.

eigengrau

the uniform dark gray background that many people report seeing in the absence of light

hegira

an exodus or migration

bracken

a tall fern with coarse lobed fronds, which occurs worldwide and can cover large areas.

gastrique

caramelized sugar, deglazed with vinegar or other sour liquids, used as a sweet and sour flavoring for sauces

mittelstand

a group of stable business enterprises in Germany, Austria and Switzerland that have proved successful in enduring economic change and turbulence

strix

in the mythology of classical antiquity, was a bird of ill omen, the product of metamorphosis, that fed on human flesh and blood

souq

A street market, particularly in Arabic- and Somali-speaking countries; a place where people buy and sell goods; a bazaar.

favela

a slum or shantytown located within or on the outskirts of the country’s large cities

coracle

a small round boat made of wickerwork covered with a watertight material, propelled with a paddle

atelic

showing an action or happening as being unfinished

ignosticism

the philosophical position that the question of the existence of God is meaningless

mawkish

sentimental in a feeble or sickly way

leveret

a young hare in its first year

orgone

a supposed sexual energy or life force distributed throughout the universe that can be collected and stored (in an orgone box) for therapeutic use

grook

a form of short aphoristic poem or rhyming aphorism

choreomania

n uncontrollable urge to dance, especially in a frenzied, convulsive manner

spoor

the track or scent of an animal

geognosis

knowledge of the world

scaffa

a cocktail prepared at room temperature

segigniorage

revenue or a profit taken from the minting of coins, usually the difference between the value of the bullion used and the face value of the coin.

veridical

coinciding with reality

dipsomania

alcoholism, specifically in a form characterized by intermittent bouts of craving for alcohol.

nullifidian

a person having no faith or religious belief.

ectopic

in an abnormal place or position

banlieue

a suburb of a French city, especially Paris.

gurn

to make a grotesque face

apposite

apt in the circumstances or in relation to something.

genetrix

a female parent; a mother

ischemia

an inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, especially the heart muscles

narthex

an antechamber, porch, or distinct area at the western entrance of some early Christian churches

parataxis

the placing of clauses or phrases one after another, without words to indicate coordination or subordination, as in Tell me, how are you?

allograft

a tissue graft from a donor of the same species as the recipient but not genetically identical

chrism

a mixture of oil and balsam, consecrated and used for anointing at baptism

modiste

a fashionable milliner or dressmaker

glasnost

the policy or practice of more open consultative government and wider dissemination of information

jalopy

an old car in a dilapidated condition

chiaroscuro

the treatment of light and shade in drawing and painting.

hosanna

an expression of adoration, praise, or joy

excursus

a detailed discussion of a particular point in a book, usually in an appendix.

quadrille

a square dance performed typically by four couples and containing five figures, each of which is a complete dance in itself.

arahant

a being who has reached a state of perfection and enlightenment

apperception

the mental process by which a person makes sense of an idea by assimilating it to the body of ideas he or she already possesses.

paternoster

an elevator consisting of a series of linked doorless compartments moving continuously on an endless belt.

sumptuary

relating to or denoting laws that limit private expenditure on food and personal items

catafalque

a decorated wooden framework supporting the coffin of a distinguished person during a funeral or while lying in state.

oneiromancy

the interpretation of dreams in order to foretell the future.

apricity

the warmth of the sun in winter

oology

the collection and study of birds' eggs especially in relation to their shape and coloration

terroir

the complete natural environment in which a particular wine is produced

nephology

the study or contemplation of clouds

txoko

a typically Basque type of closed gastronomical society where men come together to cook, experiment with new ways of cooking, eat and socialize

yegg

a burglar or safecracker

marotte

a prop stick or sceptre with a carved head on it

aubade

a piece sung or played outdoors at dawn, usually as a compliment to someone

chrestomathy

a selection of passages from an author or authors, designed to help in learning a language.

holon

something that is simultaneously a whole in and of itself, as well as a part of a larger whole

feve

a small trinket hidden in a king cake or similar dessert

scopophilia

pleasure in looking; in Freudian psychoanalytic theory, an infantile instinct

apoptosis

the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.

hebetude

the state of being dull or lethargic

deixis

the function or use of deictic words, forms, or expressions.

pycnocline

a layer in an ocean or other body of water in which water density increases rapidly with depth.

hircinous

Of, or pertaining to goats; hircine

bogatyr

a stock character in medieval East Slavic legends, akin to a Western European knight-errant

antinomy

a contradiction between two beliefs or conclusions that are in themselves reasonable; a paradox.

adipose

fat

propinquity

the state of being close to someone or something; proximity.

sere

(especially of vegetation) dry or withered

anosognosia

a condition in which a person with a disability is cognitively unaware of having it due to an underlying physical condition

arrogate

take or claim (something) without justification.

chiton

a marine mollusk that has an oval flattened body with a shell of overlapping plates

hapax

a word that only appears once in a work of or genus of literature or in a body of work by a particular author

etiology

the investigation or attribution of the cause or reason for something, often expressed in terms of historical or mythical explanation.

polysemy

the coexistence of many possible meanings for a word or phrase

slew

to turn (something, such as a telescope or a ship's spar) about a fixed point that is usually the axis

berm

a flat strip of land, raised bank, or terrace bordering a river or canal.

gantry

a bridge-like overhead structure with a platform supporting equipment such as a crane, railroad signals, lights, or cameras.

mare

large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions

latibulate

to hide oneself in a corner

enconium

a speech or piece of writing that praises someone or something highly.

xerophagy

the practice of eating dry food, especially food cooked without oil

interstice

a space that intervenes between things

figurant

one that figures in a scene without speaking or without taking a prominent part

demotic

denoting or relating to the kind of language used by ordinary people; popular or colloquial.

teratogen

an agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus

fictile

capable of being molded; made of earth, clay, etc.; by a potter.

harridan

an angry and unpleasant woman

concupiscence

strong sexual desire; lust

picayune

of little value or account; small; trifling

formulary

an official list giving details of medicines that may be prescribed.

hybristophilia

sexual interest in and attraction to those who commit crimes

widdershins

in a direction contrary to the sun's course, considered as unlucky; counterclockwise.

pullulate

to send forth sprouts, buds, etc.; germinate; sprout

factotum

an employee who does all kinds of work.

gasconade

extravagant boasting.

muliebrity

womanly qualities; womanhood.

callipygian

having well-shaped buttocks

meretricious

apparently attractive but having in reality no value or integrity.

cloche

a small translucent cover for protecting or forcing outdoor plants.

nictitate

to blink

battement

a movement in which one leg is moved outward from the body and in again

dissimulation

concealment of one's thoughts, feelings, or character; pretense

ruction

a noisy fight

propitiation

the act of appeasing or making well-disposed a deity, thus incurring divine favor or avoiding divine retribution

lazarette

a small compartment below the deck in the after end of a vessel, used for stores.

lordotic

having an increased inward curving of the lumbar spine

bafflegab

incomprehensible or pretentious language, especially bureaucratic jargon.

tonneau

the part of an automobile, typically an open car, occupied by the back seats

redolent

exuding fragrance : aromatic

snee

to cut or thrust with a knife, esp when fighting

agnate

a relative whose kinship is traceable exclusively through males

wainscott

line (a room or wall) with wooden paneling

ariose

characterized by melody; songlike

sangfroid

composure or coolness, sometimes excessive, as shown in danger or under trying circumstances.

erumpent

bursting forth or through a surface

mell

to blend; mix; meld. to meddle; concern oneself

thurible

censer

aureate

denoting, made of, or having the color of gold

transom

a strengthening crossbar, in particular one set above a window or door

febrile

feverish

travois

a type of sledge used to carry goods, consisting of two joined poles pulled by a horse or dog.

agential

of, relating to, or expressive of an agent or agency

chaparral

vegetation consisting chiefly of tangled shrubs and thorny bushes.

gamine

a young woman with a mischievous, boyish charm

novena

a form of worship consisting of special prayers or services on nine successive days.

oscular

related to kissing

alterity

the state of being other or different; otherness.

uxorious

having or showing an excessive or submissive fondness for one's wife

interpellate

to question (someone, such as a foreign minister) formally concerning an official action or policy or personal conduct

oriel

a projection from the wall of a building, typically supported from the ground or by corbels

caconym

an incorrect name for something

perihelion

the point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid, or comet at which it is closest to the sun

pettifogging

placing undue emphasis on petty details

agnotology

the study of deliberate, culturally-induced ignorance or doubt, typically to sell a product or win favour

ontogenesis

the development of an individual organism or anatomical or behavioral feature from the earliest stage to maturity

hiatal

of, relating to, or involving a hiatus

hamartia

a fatal flaw leading to the downfall of a tragic hero or heroine.

salubrious

favorable to or promoting health or well-being

canticle

a hymn or chant, typically with a biblical text, forming a regular part of a church service.

sacristy

a room in a church where a priest prepares for a service, and where vestments and other things used in worship are kept.

cay

a low bank or reef of coral, rock, or sand

palooka

a stupid, clumsy, or uncouth person

deontic

relating to duty and obligation as ethical concepts

tatterdemalion

a person in tattered clothing; a shabby person

pythonist

a person who professes to prophesy through some divine or esoteric inspiration

ataraxy

a state of serene calmness

sybarite

a person who is self-indulgent in their fondness for sensuous luxury

snood

an ornamental hairnet or fabric bag worn over the hair at the back of a woman's head

peripatetic

traveling from place to place, in particular working or based in various places for relatively short periods.

antrum

a natural chamber or cavity in a bone or other anatomical structure

aneuploidy

the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46

passerine

relating to or denoting birds of a large order distinguished by feet that are adapted for perching, including all songbirds.

rill

a small stream

gouache

a method of painting using opaque pigments ground in water and thickened with a gluelike substance.

friable

easily crumbled

panegyric

a public speech or published text in praise of someone or something

efflux

something given off in as or as if in a stream

tenebrous

dark; shadowy or obscure

doyenne

a woman who is the most respected or prominent person in a particular field

cozen

to trick or deceive

chiral

asymmetric in such a way that the structure and its mirror image are not superimposable

solecism

a grammatical mistake in speech or writing

exaptation

a trait that has been co-opted for a use other than the one for which natural selection has built it

lustic

vigorous; jovial

voluptuary

a person devoted to luxury and sensual pleasure

bedizen

dress up or decorate gaudily.

locavore

a person whose diet consists only or principally of locally grown or produced food.

ostinato

a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice and/or pitch

martinet

a strict disciplinarian, especially in the armed forces.

attar

a fragrant essential oil, typically made from rose petals.

apophasis

a rhetorical device wherein the speaker or writer brings up a subject by either denying it

belletrist

a person who writes essays, particularly on literary and artistic criticism, that are composed and read primarily for their aesthetic effect

psychosphere

the sphere or realm of human consciousness

clowder

a group of cats

ort

a scrap or remainder of food from a meal

afflatus

a divine creative impulse or inspiration

desacralize

to divest of sacred qualities or status

apophenia

the tendency to perceive meaningful connections between seemingly unrelated things

stertoreous

snoring; hardly breathing

chiffonier

a tall chest of drawers, often with a mirror on top.

recusancy

refusal to submit to established authority

denude

strip (something) of its covering, possessions, or assets; make bare

nudnik

a pestering, nagging, or irritating person; a bore.

collimate

make (rays of light or particles) accurately parallel

naphtha

a flammable oil

threnody

a lament

mishegaas

craziness; senseless behavior or activity

antapex

the point of the celestial sphere from which the solar system is moving

fissile

able to undergo nuclear fission; easily split

dun

to nag someone about paying a debt

quorate

having a sufficient number of members to constitute a quorum

parimutuel

a form of betting in which those backing the first three places divide the losers' stakes

graphomania

the compulsion to write

pluviophile

a lover of rain

remainderman

the person who inherits or is entitled to inherit property upon the termination of the life estate of the former owner

fillip

something which acts as a stimulus or boost to an activity.

unicursal

relating to or denoting a curve or surface which is closed and can be drawn or swept out in a single movement

pikuach nefesh

the principle in Jewish law that the preservation of human life overrides virtually any other religious rule. When the life of a specific person is in danger, almost any mitzvah lo ta'aseh of the Torah becomes inapplicable

shirr

bake an egg without its shell

asperity

harshness of tone or manner

gangue

the commercially valueless material in which ore is found

pericarp

the part of the fruit formed from the wall of the ripened ovary

pleonastic

needlessly wordy or redundant (“I heard it with my own ears”)

poryphyry

a hard igneous rock containing crystals, usually of feldspar, in a fine-grained, typically reddish groundmass.

syntony

the state of being normally responsive to and in harmony with the environment

crypticity

the condition or state of something being cryptic

quirt

a short-handled riding whip with a braided leather lash

ailurophobe

someone who is irrationally afraid of cats

votary

a person, such as a monk or nun, who has made vows of dedication to religious service

anneal

to heat something and allow it to cool slowly, in order to remove internal stresses and toughen it.

chanticleer

rooster

burgess

an inhabitant of a town or borough with full rights of citizenship

escheat

the reversion of property to the state on the owner's dying without legal heirs

parson

a beneficed member of the clergy; a rector or a vicar

ratiocination

the process of exact thinking

stemwinder

an entertaining and rousing speech

natant

swimming or afloat

brumation

a state or condition of sluggishness, inactivity, or torpor exhibited by reptiles

adumbrate

report or represent in outline

dudgeon

a feeling of offense or deep resentment

septentrional

related to the north; northern

aileron

a hinged surface in the trailing edge of an airplane wing, used to control lateral balance

antedating

an example or instance of a word/phrase at a date earlier than previously known

antinomianism

any view which rejects laws or legalism and argues against moral, religious or social norms

cotyledon

an embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants

crenellation

the battlements of a castle or other building

engram

a unit of cognitive information inside the brain

fibril

a small or slender fiber

flexion

the action of bending or the condition of being bent

roan

denoting an animal with gray/silvery hair

spinnaker

a sail designed specifically for sailing off the wind

calumny

the making of false and defamatory statements about someone in order to damage their reputation; slander.

vibratiuncle

a miniscule or slight vibration

bollix

to bungle (ie a task)

tonsorial

relating to hairdressing

gravitic

of or pertaining to gravity

susurrus

whispering, murmuring, or rustling.

culvert

a tunnel carrying a stream or open drain under a road or railroad

quidnunc

an inquisitive and gossipy person

interwork

be able to connect, communicate, or exchange data

kvell

feel happy and proud

piolet

ice axe

muon

an unstable subatomic particle of the same class as an electron

plenum

an assembly of all the members of a group or committee

rodomontade

boastful or inflated talk or behavior.

tref

not kosher

geometer

a specialist in geometry (i.e. for mapmaking or exploration)

irenic

aiming at peace

egest

to discharge, as from the body; void (opposed to ingest)

dolorous

feeling or expressing great sorrow or distress.

autogyro

a type of rotorcraft that uses an unpowered rotor in free autorotation to develop lift

neonate

a newborn child

neotony

the retention of juvenile features in the adult animal

quincunx

an arrangement of five objects with four at the corners of a square or rectangle and the fifth at its center

neoteric

new or modern; recent

ablation

a procedure for restoring normal heart rhythm

clement

mild and peaceful

oracular

hard to interpret; enigmatic

carom

strike and rebound

dysgenic

exerting a detrimental effect on later generations through the inheritance of undesirable characteristics

oleaginous

rich with, covered in, or heavily producing oil or grease

extirpate

root out and destroy completely

suet

the hard white fat on the kidneys and loins of cattle, sheep, and other animals, used to make foods including puddings, pastry, and mincemeat

offal

the entrails and internal organs of an animal used as food.

syncytium

a single cell or cytoplasmic mass containing several nuclei, formed by fusion of cells or by division of nuclei

funicular

a cable railroad, especially one on a mountainside, in which ascending and descending cars are counterbalanced.

salvific

leading to salvation

missal

a book containing the texts used in the Catholic Mass throughout the year

aporia

an irresolvable internal contradiction or logical disjunction in a text, argument, or theory

slatternly

(relating to a woman’s appearance) dirty and untidy

chthonic

concerning, belonging to, or inhabiting the underworld.

gongoozler

a person who enjoys watching activity on the canals of the United Kingdom

soteriology

the doctrine of salvation

trilemma

a difficult choice from three options, each of which is (or appears) unacceptable or unfavourable

alimentary

relating to nourishment or sustenance.

helpmate

a helpful companion or partner, especially one's husband or wife.

squamous

covered with or characterized by scales

dewclaw

a rudimentary inner toe present in some dogs

dropsy

a non-technical edema

concomitant

naturally accompanying or associated

weir

a low dam built across a river to raise the water level upstream

miserablist

a person who appears to enjoy being depressed, esp a performer of or listener to gloomy music

autarky

economic independence or self-sufficiency

slue

turn or slide violently or uncontrollably in a particular direction.

elucubrate

to solve, write, or compose by working studiously at all hours

toyetic

potentially marketable as a toy or having merchandising potential

scripturient

having a strong urge to write

lustration

a rite of purification, especially washing

oryx

a species of large antelopes

glabrous

free from hair or down; smooth

orts

table scraps

saturnine

slow and gloomy

cachinnate

to laugh loudly or immoderately

loge

a small enclosure or booth in a theatre or arena

varietist

one who varies from the norm

sestet

the last six lines of a sonnet

doctrinaire

seeking to impose a doctrine in all circumstances without regard to practical considerations.

impecunious

having little or no money

arrant

complete; utter

goldbrick

invent excuses to avoid a task; shirk.

cartouche

a carved tablet or drawing representing a scroll with rolled-up ends

timpani

kettledrums, especially when played by one musician in an orchestra

coati

a type of raccoon with a long snout and a striped tail

amphigory

nonsense verse

apothegm

short, witty aphorism

besserwisser

know-it-all, wiseguy, wiseacre, smart aleck

enchiridion

carried reference book

eunoia

beautiful thinking

olio

a miscellaneous collection of things

phrontistery

a place for studying

selcouth

strange; unfamiliar; marvelous

piste

a ski run of compacted snow.

autochthonous

native to the place where found (ant. allochthonous)

polity

an organized society; a state as a political entity

calf

a floating piece of ice detached from an iceberg.

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© 2023 Justin Duke • 𝑫𝑶 𝒀𝑶𝑼 𝑯𝑨𝑽𝑬 𝑨 𝑪𝑶𝑴𝑹𝑨𝑫𝑬?